Insanity, craziness or madness is a spectrum of behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns. Insanity may manifest as violations of societal norms, including a person becoming a danger to themselves or others, though not all such acts are considered insanity; likewise, not all acts showing indifference toward societal norms are acts of insanity. In modern usage, insanity is most commonly encountered as an informal unscientific term denoting mental instability, or in the narrow legal context of the insanity defense. In the medical profession the term is now avoided in favor of diagnoses of specific mental disorders; the presence of delusions or hallucinations is broadly referred to as psychosis. When discussing mental illness in general terms, "psychopathology" is considered a preferred descriptor.
In English, the word "sane" derives from the Latin adjective sanus meaning "healthy". Juvenal's phrase mens sana in corpore sano is often translated to mean a "healthy mind in a healthy body". From this perspective, insanity can be considered as poor health of the mind, not necessarily of the brain as an organ (although that can affect mental health), but rather refers to defective function of mental processes such as reasoning. Another Latin phrase related to our current concept of sanity is "compos mentis" (lit. "sound of mind"), and a euphemistic term for insanity is "non compos mentis". In law, mens rea means having had criminal intent, or a guilty mind, when the act (actus reus) was committed.
He first appeared as Philip Sterns in The Incredible Hulk #363 (December 1989) and as Madman in The Incredible Hulk #364 where they were created by Peter David and Jeff Purves.
Fictional character biography
A former schoolmate of Bruce Banner, Sterns develops a deranged love/obsession with Banner's "career" as the Hulk. Sterns subjects himself to a multitude of experiments involving gamma-radiation to emulate his "hero." This results in Sterns turning into a distorted monstrosity with vast superhuman strength, and develops multiple personality disorder. From this point, a much stronger, arguably deranged, personality gives him ‘orders’ to carry out.
Calling himself Madman, Sterns hatches a plot to kill the Hulk, giving him a poison injection that rapidly deteriorates his physical state. This puts the Hulk in conflict with various members of his rogues’ gallery, most notably the Abomination, turning weaker and more emaciated for every battle. Samuel Sterns, the Leader and Phillip's brother, comes to the Hulk's aid and helps him track down Madman to find the antidote. He explains that Madman "scares him," but can’t force himself to kill his brother. During the ensuing battle, Madman suffers a psychological breakdown, completely submerging his original personality, and Hulk manages to cure himself, as well as poison Madman, leaving the latter on the verge of death, with the remedy dropped barely out of reach.
"Madman" is an unfinished song by John Lennon and was recorded by The Beatles in January 1969 during studio sessions later identified as the "Let It Be" sessions.
Although the song was introduced during the sessions that would eventually become the Let It Be album, it apparently was never completed at that time. Of the two known recordings of the song during Beatles sessions, Lennon moves the lyrics around and alters its arrangement. A similarity between this song and Lennon's "Mean Mr. Mustard" from the Abbey Road album has been often noted.